What is Autism?
什麼是自閉症?

Autism Spectrum Disorder or ASD or autism for short, is a neurodevelopmental, which means the development of the nervous system disability that affects social communication skills. 

 

Symptoms can be mild or more severe and are present from a young age. Though sometimes symptoms do not become a problem until children are older.

 

Frequently, parents or teachers may become concerned about a child, if they are not showing good eye contact or have delays in speech skills. In older children, there may be a suspicion for autism, if the child has difficulty making friends or has ritualistic or repetitive behaviors.

自閉症譜系障礙或簡稱 ASD 或自閉症,是一種與生俱來的神經發展障礙, 以致在社交, 溝通, 認知, 情緒和行為方面都有不同程度的困難和發展差異

每個人的症狀都不一,可以很輕微也可以很嚴重的,而有些症狀從小就會出現。有些症狀到孩子長大才逐漸明顯,影響生活。

 

在幼兒期,引起家長和老師的注意的症狀,普遍都是缺乏正常眼神交流或言語遲緩。而在比較年長的孩子中,他們的症狀都與難以結交朋友或不斷做重複性行為有關。

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Different between Autism Spectrum Disorder and Asperger syndrome?
自閉症譜系障礙和亞氏保加症的區別?

Asian Boy

Asperger syndrome and Autism were very similar in diagnosis, and the major difference was whether a child has a speech delay when they were young. If they has a speech delay and the other symptoms of ASD , they they were given the diagnosis of Autism. If the child did not , then they were given the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. There were a few other diagnostic criteria , but this is the major difference. 

亞氏保加症 (阿斯伯格綜合症)和自閉症在診斷上非常相似,主要區別在於孩子年輕時是否有語言延遲。 如果他們有語言延遲和 ASD 的其他症狀,他們就會被診斷為自閉症。如果孩子沒有,那麼他們就會被診斷為亞氏保加症 (阿斯伯格綜合症),還有一些其他診斷標準,但這是主要區別。

Autism Spectrum Disorder requires deficits or abnormal function in two main categories : social communication and restricted repetitive patterns of behaviour interests or actives. 

自閉症譜系障礙主要在兩個類別中遇到困難: 社交和限制重複行為及活動模式。

What are the Odds ?
自閉症發機率?

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Signs and Symptoms of ASD
自閉症的特徵

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Social communication / interaction behaviors may include :

  • Making little or inconsistent eye contact

  • Tending not to look at or listen to people

  • Rarely sharing enjoyment of objects or activities by pointing or showing things to others

  • Failing to, or being slow to, respond to someone calling their name or to other 

社交溝通/互動行為可能包括:

  • 很少或不願意進行眼神交流

  • 傾向於不看和不聆聽別人的話

  • 很少和他人分享自己在進行的事物或活動

  • 當他人叫喚他的名字是表現比較遲鈍或沒有反應
     

Restrictive / repetitive behaviors may include :

  • Repeating certain behaviors or having unusual behaviors. For example, repeating words or phrases, a behavior called echolalia

  • Having a lasting intense interest in certain topics, such as numbers, details, or facts

  • Having overly focused interests, such as with moving objects or parts of objects

  • Getting upset by slight changes in a routine

  • Being more or less sensitive than other people to sensory input, such as light, noise, clothing, or temperature

限制性/重複性行為可能包括:

  • 重複某些行為或有異常行為。例如,重複單詞或短語,這種行為稱為 echolalia

  • 對某些主題(例如數字、細節或事實)有持久的濃厚興趣

  • 過於專注的興趣,例如移動物體或物體的一部分

  • 因日常生活中的細微變化而心煩意亂

  • 其他人相比 ,對身邊事物比較敏感/或完全不敏感(例如光、噪音、衣服或溫度)

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